SFH Papers


Determinants of condom use by men in extramarital relationships in Nigeria. Augustine Ankomah, Samson B Adebayo,2, Jennifer Anyanti, Olaronke Ladipo, and Bright Ekweremadu3. (2013).

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 ABSTRACT: Extramarital sex is a high-risk behavior in terms of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission, yet condom use in extramarital relationships is an understudied area in Africa, and Nigeria in particular, where such liaisons are not uncommon. This study highlights key determinants of condom use among men who engage in extramarital sex in Nigeria.

Marital Status and HIV Prevalence in Nigeria: Implications for Effective Prevention Programmes for Women. Samson B. Adebayo, Richard I. Olukolade, Omokhudu Idogho, Jennifer Anyanti, Augustine Ankomah. (2013)

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ABSTRACT: Until recently, HIV prevalence has been based on estimates from antenatal sentinel surveys which have been found to overestimate HIV prevalence among the general population. Multiple studies have shown women to be disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS epidemic. Design: Data for this study were based on the first Nigerian population household-based HIV biomarker survey of 2007, which used a multi-stage probability sampling technique.

Investigating Claims of Contraceptive Failure among Women of Reproductive Age in Nigeria:   Findings from a National Survey. Ipadeola, O.B., Ujuju, C., Anyanti, J., & Adebayo, S.B. (2013).

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ABSTRACT: Uptake of contraceptives in Nigeria is low despite the several interventions and efforts on family planning in the country. Contraceptive failure among other factors may be responsible for this occurrence as wo men reason “why use it if it doesn’t work”. This paper investigates claims of contraceptive failure among wo men aged 15 to 49 years in Nigeria using data obtained from the 2007 National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey. A total of 5360 wo men were interviewed in the study. Using the Chi Square test of association and the logistic regression, variables such as level of education, place of residence, geopolitical zones and exposure to mass media intervention on family planning were explored. Findings showed that more than 86% have ever been pregnant and about 10% had become pregnant while using contraceptive (P = 0.0992, CI =0.0888, 0.1096). Report of contraceptive failure was highest among wo men aged 25 years and above (85%), while self-employed group were more affected than women in other occupational groups. Also, women from rural areas reported more cases of contraceptive failure than their urban counterpart (54.1% to 45.9%). Daily oral pills accounted for about 21.5% of all reported contraceptive failures while condoms and Injectable accounted for 19.6% and 13.9% respectively. Women with secondary and higher levels of education are 1.7 times more likely to experience contraceptive failure than wo men of lower educational level. Significant spatial pattern was observed at the level of geopolitical zones. Intervention on client adherence to pills and introducing Cycle beads to women who prefer traditional methods may be explored.

Condom use among at-risk African American young adults. Weather, P. Erickson, M. Singer, O. Ezire, O. Oluigbo, V. Archibong, O. Ifeanyi, J. Anyanti. (2013).

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 ABSTRACT: This study investigated sexual risk behaviors of at-risk males and females in the Philadelphia and Hartford Research and Education on Sexual Health and Communication (Project PHRESH.comm) study. We employed the Theory of Planned Behavior and sexual scripting theory to understand sexual risk behaviors of 18 to 25 year-old Hartford, Connecticut (CT) African Americans. Focus group and sexual relationship life history interviews were coded and analyzed for themes. Seven themes emerged: factors that informed condom use decisions; condom use negotiation; spontaneity and condom use; emotion and sex without condoms; resources and condom use; condom use infractions and partner informing; and knowledge and condom use efficacy. The study revealed that love or concern for a partner’s feelings might alter sexual scripts and intentions to use condoms. Difficulty reconciling condom use with intimacy needs led to sex without condoms. Very importantly, an information deficit seemed to interfere with consistent condom use across relationship types, and among pregnant women in precarious sexual situations suggesting the need for education and re-education about condom use among African American young adults.

Population-based prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus, HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia in male injection drug users in Lagos, Nigeria. W Tun, PhD, L Vu, MD PhD, S B Adebajo, PhD, L Abiodun, PhD, M Sheehy, MSc, A Karlyn, PhD, J Njab, MSc, B Ahonsi, PhD, B K Issa, MBBS, O Idogho, MBBS (2013).

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ABSTRACT: There is little research on injecting drug use in Nigeria. We investigated the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among male injection drug users (IDUs) in Lagos. Male IDUs (N = 328) were recruited through respondent-driven sampling. Participants completed an interview about their sexual and injecting risk behaviours and were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBV), hepatitis C antibody (HCV), HIV and syphilis, as well as genital chlamydia and gonorrhea infections. Three-quarters of IDUs (74%) reported injecting drugs in the past one month although most did not share needles (92%) and the majority obtained sterile needles from pharmacists (87%). Estimated HBV, HCV, HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia prevalence were 7.8%, 7.7%, 0.9%, 1.9%, 0.0%, and 3.7%, respectively. The burden of HIV is presently low among IDUs in Lagos. Changes in accessibility to sterile needles at pharmacists would likely have a deleterious effect on IDUs’ health. HBV vaccination and HCV prevention programmes for IDUs are urgently needed.

Modelling geographical variations and determinants of use of modern family planning methods among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Adebayo Samson, Gayawan Ezra, Ujuju Chinazo, Ankomah Auguatine. Modelling Geographical Variations and Determinants of Use of Modern Family Planning Methods Among Women of Reproductive Age in Nigeria. Journal of Biosocial Science. Cambridge University Press; 2013;45(1):57–7

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ABSTRACT: Understanding the level, trend, geographical variations and determinants of use of modern family planning (FP) plays a major role in designing effective interventions leading to increased usage. This study assessed these characteristics of FP use in Nigeria using data from the 2003, 2005 and 2007 National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey, a national population-based household survey. A Bayesian geo-additive procedure was used, which provides flexible modelling of non-linear and spatial effects at a highly disaggregated level of states. The findings reveal considerable geographical variation in the use of modern FP in Nigeria, with a distinct north–south divide. Furthermore, a significant trend in the use of modern FP was evident, with an increase between 2003 and 2005 followed by a decline between 2005 and 2007. The effect of respondent’s age was non-linear, and use of modern FP was found to differ significantly between never-married and currently/formerly married respondents. Awareness of FP methods and knowledge of where to get/buy FP services/methods were found to be significantly associated with usage. The findings provide policymakers with tools to prioritize the use of scarce resources for implementing FP and reproductive health interventions.

Socio-demographic determinant of HIV counseling and testing uptake among young people in Nigera. Ibrahim, O. Ipadeola, S. Adebayo. 13. Socio-demographic determinant of HIV counseling and testing uptake among young people in Nigeria (2013).

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ABSTRACT: Young people are particularly affected by the HIV epidemics and are the focal point of intervention in most African countries. However, uptake of HCT among young people aged 15 to 24 years in Nigeria is very low. This study aimed at identifying factors that may affect uptake of HCT among young people in Nigeria using data from a national population based survey. Analysis was based on responses from 4624 individuals using the chi square and logistic regression approach. About 10% of the respondents had ever undertaken an HIV test. Knowledge of HCT centers, education status, place of residence,sexual intercourse experience, geopolitical zone and socio economic status are all significant determinants of uptake of HIV test among young people in Nigeria. Respondents who know a place to access HIV test are about 2 times more likely to take the test, those who have at least secondary education are about 1.8 times more likely to take an HIV test while young people who reside in urban areas are about 1.5 times more likely to go for an HIV test. Improving knowledge of HCT centers, education and sensitization program on benefits of HCT will improve uptake of HCT among the young people in Nigeria.

Barriers to repeated use of female condom among women and men of reproductive age in Nigeria. Onoriode Ezire, Obi Oluigbo, Victoria Archibong, Okekearu Ifeanyi and Jennifer Anyanti. Barriers to repeated use of female condom among women and men of reproductive age in Nigeria. (2013).

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ABSTRACT: Repeated use of female condom is very low in Nigeria. Just three out of ten persons who have ever used female condoms intend to continue using it. This study conducted in three Nigerian States was aimed at identifying the barriers to repeated and non-repeated use of female condom. Among men and women of reproductive age, 16 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 16 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted using structured tools. Key findings showed that first experience with the use of female condom was a major reason for continuing or discontinuing use of female condom. First use experience was influenced by what users were told and the skills they have in wearing female condom. Informed and supported female condom users were willing to repeat its use while those who were not, had “bad” first experiences. Female condom is a unique commodity. Just handing it out without proper education will pose a serious challenge for its continuous and sustained use. Frontline staff should be well informed and educated on the product. First time users should be supported to use the product.

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